A microorganism capable of causing disease.


A mycotoxin produced by Penicillium moulds, including Penicillium roquefortine. It is a neurotoxin and causes a lack of coordination and muscle weakness in animals that have ingested it. Patulin reduces the production of volatile fatty acids in ruminants, reducing the amount of energy a cow is capable of obtaining from its diet. Patulin is commonly found in silage so is classified as a silage mycotoxin.

Penicillic acid

A mycotoxin produced by Penicillum moulds, such as Penicillium roquefortine. Commonly found in silage so is classified as a silage mycotoxin.

Penicillium sp.

Typically storage fungi found in a wide range of crops and silage. Capable of producing a wide range of mycotoxins.

PR Toxin

A mycotoxin produced by certain Penicillum moulds and can be found in silage.


Feedstuff fed to livestock that contains various plant based materials, additives and essential nutrients. Can be added to grain or forage. Bought from premix companies. Usually pelleted.


Microscopic, single celled organisms that live in the rumen of cattle, thriving off of the nutrients ingested by the cattle and breaking down the feedstuffs, benefitting the cow.