Ochratoxin A

A mycotoxin classified as a phenylalanine-dihydroisocoumarin produced by various Penicillium moulds (produce OTA in temperature countries) and Aspergillus moulds (produce OTA in tropical countries), especially Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus ochraceus. If silage mycotoxins are not present, the rumen is able to break OTA down so it has less of an effect in ruminants than monogastrics. In swine and poultry ochratoxin A causes nephropathies, reduced weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency.

Oxidative stress

The presence of oxygen in cells causing their impairment.